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Welsh Words and Phrases on Gravestones

The inscriptions on gravestones in Welsh churchyards, cemeteries and chapel burial yards are frequently written in the Welsh language, as in the example quoted here. At first sight, this may confound non Welsh-speaking family historians, but checking through the lists of Welsh words and phrases provided below should enable most such inscriptions to be understood. When you've studied the lists, scroll down the page and test your skills on an authentic Welsh monumental inscription.

Welsh words and phrases
(Welsh spelling variants in brackets)

Welsh word or phrase English equivalent
Er cof am In memory of
Er cof an(n)wyl am In loving memory of
Er parchus cof am In respectful memory of
Er serchus cof am In loving (affectionate) memory of
Yma gorphwys (gorffwys) rhan farwol Here lie the mortal remains of
(g)wraig wife (of)
priod (briod) spouse (male or female)
an(n)wyl wraig beloved wife (of)
an(n)wyl briod beloved wife/husband (of)
chwaer sister (of)
ŵyr grandson (of)
a fu farw (bu farw) who died
yn 34 mlwydd oed aged 34 years
yn 15 mis oed aged 15 months
hefyd also
eto / etto also
yr uchod the above
y rhag grybwylledig the aforementioned
y rhagenwyd / rhagddywededig the aforementioned
ei ferch / ei merch / eu merch his/her/their daughter
ei fab / ei mab / eu mab his/her/their son
(yr hwn) a hunodd who fell asleep (i.e. died)
hunodd yn yr Iesu asleep in Jesus (i.e. died)
aeth attynt joined them (the ancestors; i.e. died)
o'r lle hwn of this place
o'r plwyf hwn of this parish
yn y plwyf hwn in this parish
dau o blant two children
yn eu mabandod in infancy
hedd perffaith hedd peace perfect peace
corffwys (yn gorffwys) mewn hedd rest in peace
yn hyn a allodd hon hi a'i gwnaeth she did all that was expected of her
coffadwriaeth y cyfiawn sydd fendigaid blessed is the memory of the righteous
Gogoniant i Dduw yn y Goruchaf Glory to God in the Highest

Calendar Months
(common abbreviations in brackets)

Welsh English Welsh English
Awst August Mai May
Chwefror (Chwe.) February Mawrth (Maw.) March
Ebrill (Ebr.) April Medi September
Gorffenaf/Gorphenaf (Gor.) July Mehefin (Meh.) June
Hydref/Hedref (Hyd./Hed.) October Rhagfyr (Rhag.) December
Ionawr (Ion.) January Tachwedd (Tach.) November